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Moles and harbours

BREAKWATERS OF THE PORT OF ODESSA

Breakwaters of the port of Odesa. The port’s harbors are protected by three hydraulic rectilinear gravity breakwaters of different sizes.

 

An old breakwater designed by K. Gartley was being constructed from 1879 to 1882 to protect the port’s harbours from the Quarantine to Practical harbours including. 

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Vorontsov Lighthouse

Vorontsov Lighthouse is the main lighthouse of the port of Odesa was established at the head of Reydovy Mole in 1955, was made in Kronshtad of tubing. Its dimensions are the following: the trunk is white, lantern structure - a red electric rotating with the help of lens light of 1 million 100 thousand candles and a common period of red light flashes to 12 seconds with a duration of three flashes of 0.33, 0.34, 0.33 sec; the height is 27 m above sea level, at the base – 26 m;  range of visibility – 17 miles (31.49 km); gives sound signals in bad weather and gives radio signals of Morse Code round the clock; is equipped with the remote control.

 

The modern lighthouse has an interesting prehistory.

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KHLEBNAYA HARBOUR

Khlebnaya Harbour. The maximum length is 630 m, maximum depth – 13.5 m. Its complex in the modern form was created in 1960. At that time Port’s silos with the capacity of 100 thousand t with berths No. 44 and 45 for mechanical loading of grain was built. Negative processes in the economics of USSR changed cargo flow from export into import.

 

Grain was followed by Cuban raw sugar in bulk. In 1970 mechanized specialized terminal for raw sugar handling with the cargo turnover of 1 mln t per year was constructed. Sugar terminal included Sugar pier 170 m long and 24 m wide, equipped with portal cranes, grabs, propelled hopper and conveyers with the capacity of 800 t per hour.  

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ZAVODSKAYA HARBOUR

Within the present Zavodskaya Harbour there were several harbours with different names in different times. A small shed for ship repairing was the first to be built at the beginning of XX century. In early XX century to protect sheds against storms a wooden fence from Potapovsky Mole, later – fence from another side.

 

In 1899 – 1901 alongside the sheds a modern for those times shipyard was built on reclaimed territory with the area of 212817 м2.

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PRACTICAL HARBOUR

Practical Harbour (former Merchant) was formed by Androsovsky, Potapovsky and Military moles as well as by the Arbuznaya quay. The name is connected with the fact that at the beginning of its construction all world’s ports that accepted vessels from the south-east countries had a division into practical part where ships coming from sanitary safe countries and quarantine for the ships coming from sanitary dangerous countries or vessels having sick people on board.

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CABOTAGE HARBOUR

Cabotage harbor was formed by New, Military and Cabotage quays. It was built in 1890 – 1905. As well as New Harbour it was formed due to New Mole, created according to the port’s reconstruction plan designed by K. Gartley. For some period of time it didn’t have any name and later it was called Coal harbor. The modern name appeared by the beginning of the First World War. At that time the harbor belonged to the Cabotage Department of the port.

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NEW HARBOUR

New Harbour was created by Platonovsky and New moles as well as by the New quay. Its modern projected dimensions are: length – 420 m, width – 440 m, depth – 11.5 m. the harbor was formed at the first stage of the port’s reconstruction (1866-92) designed by Gartley and got it named after New Mole.

 

By the early XX century the area was 22.0 ha and maximum depth – 9.15 m and berth line 1090 m. Before the First World War the harbor belonged to two departments of the port: Foreign and Cabotage (the whole New Mole).

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QUARANTINE HARBOR

Quarantine Harbor was created by the Quarantine and Platonovsky Mole as well as by the Bakaleynaya quay and was named after the quarantine which wasn’t completed on the quay of by de Volant.

 

After the work of Von der Fleece the port was consisted of two harbors: Quarantine and Practical which didn’t correspond to their names (see Practical (Military) harbor). Quarantine harbor was designed for observation of vessels to prevent dangerous deceases spreading but because of the available depths for large ships it got additional function to handle export and import cargoes. Here vessels for observations and vessels being handled were staying next to each other. When quarantine was applied the connection with the city was disrupted that was harmful for the trade. The harbor got older and that was one of the reasons of the port’s reconstruction designed by K. Gartley. The data on the harbor of 1850 and 1865 before the reconstruction are given below.

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Oil Harbor, Oil Mole

Oil Harbor, Oil Mole. The history of the Oil harbor started at Oil Mole (1885-1895), the length is 1144 m with the adjoined spur 151 m long and quay 456 m long and depth 7.3 m. it became the northern border of the port of Odesa. Originally, oil products arrived in packaging. In 1899 under the agreement between the city and “Russkiy Standard” oil pipeline with two pump stations.

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Potapovsky mole

Potapovsky mole designed by Von-der-Fleece was built in 1844-50 to protect the port against storms and sediment. It is connected with Androsovsky Mole almost at the right angle. Potapovsky Mole initially made of wood was named after the contractor, merchant S. Potapov. The head of the mole with the end of Military (Practical) Mole form a narrow entrance to the Practical Harbor.

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ANDROSOVSKY MOLE

Androsovsky Mole was initially designed by B. V. Fon-der-Fliss together with the Potapov Mole in 1842 – 43 to protect the port against waves and sediments from the west. It was named after the contractor merchant Androsov. It composed a right angle with the Practical (Watermelon) quay.

By 1877 the wooden construction of the mole was paneled and had stone embankment with the length of 365 m. in 1912 the mole was again reconstructed, the length of the berth line was increased up to 363 m; in 1913 the length of the operational areas was 356 m. from 1901 to 1913 the berths of the mole were given to sailboats, barges and fishing boats, vessels with lumber, salt and ferrous metals. 

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